NASA’s Curiosity probe used two cameras to create this self-portrait in front of “Monte Merko,” a rock formation 20 feet high.
This perspective of the Valles Marineris hemisphere, from July 9, 2013, is actually a mosaic of 102 Viking Orbiter images. In the center is the Vallis Marineris Valley System, which has a length of more than 2000 km and a depth of 8 km.
This 2016 selfie shows a Curiosity Mars spacecraft at the Quela drill site in Murray Buttes at the bottom of Mt Sharp.
This image of a river channel preserved on the surface of Mars was captured by a satellite in orbit, with color overlay to show different altitudes. Blue is low, yellow is high.
The European Space Agency’s Mars Express mission took this 2018 photo of the Korolev crater, which is more than 50 miles wide and filled with water ice, near the North Pole.
The Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter used its HiRISE camera to obtain this view of an area of unusual texture on the south floor of Gale Crater.
The cooling lava helped preserve the imprint of where the dunes moved across the southeast region on Mars. But it also appears to be a “Star Trek” icon.
Although Mars is not geologically active like Earth, its surface features have been heavily shaped by the winds. Wind carved features like these, called yardangs, are common on the Red Planet. On the sand, the winds form small ripples and dunes. In the thin atmosphere of Mars, the light is not scattered much, so the shadows cast by the yarding are sharp and dark.
These small, hematite-rich concretes are located near the Fram Crater, which NASA’s Opportunity spacecraft visited in April 2004. The displayed area is 1.2 inches wide. The view comes from the microscope camera on the Opportunity’s robotic arm, with color information added from the rover’s panoramic camera. These minerals indicate that Mars had a water past.
This image shows the seasonal flows in Valles Marineris on Mars, called the Repetitive Slope Line, or RSL. These Martian landslides appear on cliffs during the spring and summer.
Mars is known to have dust storms surrounding the planet. These images, taken in 2001 from NASA’s Global Mars probe, show a drastic change in the appearance of the planet as the haze from dust storm activity in the south spread globally.
This composite image, looking towards higher areas of Mount Sharp, was taken in September 2015 by NASA’s Curiosity rover. In the foreground is a long ridge teeming with hematite. Beyond that is an undulating plain rich in clay minerals. Then there are many round mounds, all high in sulfate minerals. The changing minerals in these layers indicate a changing environment in early Mars, although all involved exposure to water billions of years ago.
InSight seismographs recorded a “swamp earthquake” for the first time in April 2019.
From its elevated position on a hillside, Opportunity recorded this 2016 photo of the Mars Dust Demon winding through the valley below. The view looks at rover tracks to the north-facing slope at Knudsen Ridge, which forms part of the southern edge of the Marathon Valley.
HiRISE has captured layered sediments and a shiny ice sheet at the north pole of Mars.
Nili Patera is an area on Mars where dunes and ripples move rapidly. HiRISE, aboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, continues to monitor this area every two months to see changes on seasonal and annual timescales.
NASA’s Curiosity probe captured the highest-resolution panorama of the Martian surface in late 2019. This includes more than 1,000 images and 1.8 billion pixels.
This image, which collects data from two instruments aboard NASA’s Mars Global Surveyor, depicts an orbital view of the Arctic of Mars. The ice-rich polar cap is 621 miles across, and the dark bands in it are deep troughs. To the right of center is a large canyon, Chasma Boreale, roughly bisecting the ice cap. The Chasma Boreale is about 1.2 miles long and is about the length of the famous Grand Canyon in the United States.
This image taken by HiRISE camera in November 2013 is dominated by an exciting new impact crater and is surrounded by a large burst zone with rays. Because the terrain in which the crater was formed is dusty, the new crater appears blue in the image enhancement, due to the removal of reddish dust in that area.
This dark hill, called Ireson Hill, is in the Murray Formation at the bottom of Mount Sharp, near a site where NASA’s Curiosity rover examined linear dunes in February 2017.
Is that cakes and cream on Mars? No, it’s just polar dunes covered in ice and sand.
The cloud in the center of this image is actually a dust tower that occurred in 2010 and was captured by the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. The blue and white clouds are water vapor.
HiRISE captured this image of a kilometer-sized crater in the southern hemisphere of Mars in June 2014. The crater shows frost on all south-facing slopes in late winter as Mars approaches spring.
The two largest earthquakes detected by NASA’s InSight appear to have originated in a region of Mars called Cerberus Fossae. Scientists previously discovered signs of tectonic activity here, including landslides. This image was taken by the HiRISE Camera on NASA’s Mars Reconnaisance Orbiter.
This image is the first image taken from the surface of Mars. It was captured on July 20, 1976 by the Viking 1 lander shortly after it came into contact with the planet.
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