science

Physicists say there is only one way in which humans could “safely” enter a black hole

Physicists say there is only one way in which humans could "safely" enter a black hole

To solve puzzles black holesOne must venture into one.

However, there is a rather complex problem: a human can only do this if their black hole is massive and isolated, and if the person entering the black hole does not expect to communicate the results to anyone in the entire universe.

we Both Physicists Those who study black holes, albeit from a very safe distance. black holes It is among the most abundant astrophysical objects in our world.

These interesting things seem to be a staple of me Universe evolution, From the great explosion until today. They might have An effect on the formation of human life in our galaxy.

A person falls into a black hole and expands. (Liu Rodriguez / Shanshan Rodriguez / CC BY-ND)

Two types of black holes

The universe is full of b A vast zoo of different types of black holes.

They can vary by size and be electrically charged, in the same way that electrons or protons are present in atoms. Some black holes are already spinning. There are two types of black holes relevant to our discussion.

The first does not rotate, is electrically neutral – meaning neither positive nor negative – and has the mass of our Sun. The second type is a supermassive black hole, millions to billions of times more massive than our Sun.

Besides the difference in mass between the two types of black holes, what also distinguishes them is the distance from their centers to the “event horizon” – a measure called the radial distance.

File 20210119 24 1w07b7aA person who falls into a supermassive black hole is likely to survive. (Liu and Shanshan Rodriguez / CC BY-ND)

The event horizon of a black hole is a point of no return. Anything that goes beyond this point will be swallowed up by the black hole and vanish forever from our known universe.

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On the event horizon, the black hole’s gravitational pull is so strong that no mechanical force can overcome or counteract it. Even the lightThe fastest-moving thing in our world, there is no escape – hence the term “black hole”.

The radial size of the event horizon depends on the mass of the black hole in question and is the key to a person’s survival in one. For a black hole of the mass of our Sun (one solar mass), the radius of the event horizon will be just under 2 miles (3.2 km).

20210119 21 1lb26xu fileA person is approaching the event horizon of a black hole the size of the sun. (Liu and Shanshan Rodriguez / CC BY-ND)

By contrast, the supermassive black hole at the center of our Milky Way galaxy is about 4 million solar masses, and has an event horizon of 7.3 million miles or 17 solar radii.

Thus, anyone falling into a stellar-sized black hole would get much closer to the center of the black hole before past the event horizon, rather than falling into a supermassive black hole.

This means that, given the proximity of the center of the black hole, the black hole’s tension on a person will vary 1,000 billion times between head and toe, depending on which one is driving free fall.

In other words, if a person were to drop their feet first, when they approached the event horizon of a stellar-mass black hole, the force of gravity on their feet would be significantly greater compared to the black hole’s pull on their head.

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A person will experience spaghetti, and likely will not survive expanding into a long, thin spaghetti-like shape.

Now, a person falling into a supermassive black hole would reach the event horizon away from the central source of the gravitational pull, which means that the difference in gravity between head and toes is roughly zero.

Thus, the person would pass through the event horizon unaffected, not expand into a long and thin shape, remain alive and float painlessly beyond the horizon of the black hole.

Other considerations

Most of the black holes we observe in the universe are surrounded by extremely hot disks of matter, mostly composed of gas, dust, or other things such as stars and planets that approached very close to the horizon and fell into the black hole.

These pills are called buildup discs and are very hot and turbulent. It is certainly not hospitable and would make traveling to a black hole extremely dangerous.

To enter safely, you would need to find a supermassive black hole that is completely isolated and not feeding on surrounding material, gas, or even stars.

Now, if someone finds an isolated supermassive black hole suitable for scientific study and decides to venture, everything that is observed or measured from within the black hole will be trapped within the black hole’s event horizon.

Bearing in mind that nothing could escape the gravitational pull beyond the event horizon, a fallen person would not be able to send any information about their findings beyond that horizon. Their flight and consequences will be lost to the rest of the entire universe forever. But they will enjoy the adventure as long as they survive … maybe …. Conversation

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Leo RodriguezAssistant Professor of Physics, Grenell College And the Shanshan RodriguezAssistant Professor of Physics, Grenell College.

This article was republished from Conversation Under a Creative Commons license. Read the The original article.

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